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    • 带钢硬度的现场检测方法
    • 本站编辑:莱州市试验机金刚石工具厂发布日期:2019-10-16 21:15 浏览次数:

    硬度检测的方法有洛氏硬度、布氏硬度、维氏硬度、里氏硬度、肖氏硬度、巴氏硬度、努氏硬度、韦氏硬度等。1.洛氏硬度:以压痕塑性变形深度来确定硬度值的指标。以0.002毫米作为一个硬度单位。当HB>450或者试样过小的时候,不能采用布氏硬度试验而改用洛氏硬度计量。它是用一个顶角120°的金刚石圆锥体或直径为1.59、3.18mm的钢球,在一定载荷下压入被测材料表面,由压痕的深度求出材料的硬度。根据试验材料硬度的不同,分三种不同的标度来表示:(1)HRA:是采用60kg载荷和钻石锥压入器求得的硬度,用于硬度极高的材料(如硬质合金等);(2)HRB:是采用100kg载荷和直径1.58mm淬硬的钢球,求得的硬度,用于硬度较低的材料(如退火钢、铸铁等);(3)HRC:是采用150kg载荷和钻石锥压入器求得的硬度,用于硬度很高的材料(如淬火钢等);2.布氏硬度:布氏硬度(HB)一般用于较软的材料,如有色金属、热处理之前或退火后的钢铁。布氏硬度(HB)是以一定大小的试验载荷,将一定直径的淬硬钢球或硬质合金球压入被测金属表面,保持规定时间,然后卸荷,测量被测表面压痕直径。布氏硬度值是载荷除以压痕球形表面积所得的商。一般为:以一定的载荷将一定大小的淬硬钢球压入材料表面,保持一段时间,去载后,负荷与其压痕面积之比值,即为布氏硬度值(HB),单位为公斤力/mm2 (N/mm2)。测试载荷与测试钢球的直径需根据材料的实际性能再确定;3.维氏硬度:维氏硬度试验方法是英国史密斯和塞德兰德于1925年提出的。英国的维克斯—阿姆斯特朗公司试制了第一台以此方法进行试验的硬度计。和布氏、洛氏硬度试验相比,维氏硬度试验测量范围较宽,从较软材料到超硬材料,几乎涵盖各种材料。维氏硬度的测定原理基本上和布氏硬度相同,也是根据压痕单位面积上的载荷来计算硬度值。所不同的是维氏硬度试验的压头是金刚石的正四棱锥体。试验时,在一定载荷的作用下,试样表面上压出一个四方锥形的压痕,测量压痕对角线长度,借以计算压痕的表面积,载荷除以表面积的数值就是试样的硬度值,用符号HV表示;4.里氏硬度:里氏硬度是以HL表示,里氏硬度测试技术是由瑞士狄尔马博士发明的,它是用一定质量的装有碳化钨球头的冲击体,在一定力的作用下冲击试件表面,然后反弹。由于材料硬度不同,撞击后的反弹速度也不同。在冲击装置上安装有永磁材料,当冲击体上下运动时,其外围线圈便感应出与速度成正比的电磁信号,再通过电子线路转换成里氏硬度值;5.肖氏硬度:简称HS,表示材料硬度的一种标准,由英国人肖尔首先提出。应用弹性回跳法将撞销从一定高度落到所试材料的表面上而发生回跳。撞销是一只具有尖端的小锥,尖端上常镶有金刚钻。测试数值为1000x撞销返回速度/撞销初始速度(即为碰撞前后的速度比乘以1000);6.巴氏硬度:巴柯尔硬度(简称巴氏硬度), 最早由美国 Barber-Colman公司提出,是近代国际上广泛采用的一种硬度门类,一定形状的硬钢压针,在标准弹簧试验力作用下,压入试样表面,用压针的压入深度确定材料硬度,定义每压入0.0076mm为一个巴氏硬度单位。巴氏硬度单位表示为HBa;7.努氏硬度:努氏硬度是作为绝对数值而测得的硬度,主要在加工方面使用该数值。一般来说,金刚石的努氏硬度为7000~8000千克/平方毫米;8.韦氏硬度:一定形状的硬钢压针,在标准弹簧试验力作用下压入试样表面,用压针的压入深度确定材料硬度,定义0.01mm的压入深度为一个韦氏硬度单位。韦氏硬度单位表示为HW。硬度测试种类:1. HRA:(洛氏A)用于量测热处理硬质钢材、氮化物、渗碳冶炼物、轴承钢、工具钢及其它软硬材质的硬度测试;2. HK:(Knoop 努氏)用于量测较软材质的钢及非铁材料之硬度;3. HRC:(Rockwell C洛氏)用于量测热处理钢材、氮化物、渗碳冶炼物、轴承钢、工具钢等;4. HRB:(Rockwell B洛氏)用于量测较软材质的钢及非铁材料之硬度;5. HR30T:(Rockwell 30T洛氏) 用于量测较软材质的钢及非铁材料之硬度;6. HB5:(Brinell 布氏5)用于量测铝、软质铝合金、铸铁、铜、黄铜等;7. HB30:(Brinell 布氏30)用于热处理钢、退火深冷处理钢材、冲拉材料钢、深冲钢带料等;8. HV:(Vickers维氏)适用于量测各类材料;9. R:(Tensile module拉伸模数 N/mm2)用于热处理钢、退火深冷处理钢材、冲拉材料钢、深冲钢带料等;10. HR15N:(Rockwell 洛氏HR15N)用于量测热处理硬质钢材、氮化物、渗碳冶炼物、轴承钢、工具钢等。

    Hardness testing methods include rockwell hardness, brinell hardness, vickers hardness, Richter hardness, shore hardness, pasteurelle hardness, Knudsen hardness, Webster's hardness, etc. 1. Rockwell hardness: the depth of indentation plastic deformation is used to determine the hardness value. Take 0.002 mm as a hardness unit. When HB>450 or the sample is too small, the brinell hardness test cannot be used instead of rockwell hardness measurement. It USES a diamond cone with a top Angle of 120° or a steel ball with diameters of 1.59 and 3.18mm to press into the surface of the measured material under a certain load, and then calculates the hardness of the material by the depth of indentation. According to different hardness of test materials, HRA can be expressed in three different scales: (1) HRA is the hardness obtained by using 60kg load and drilling cone presser, which is used for extremely hard materials (such as cemented carbide); (2) HRB: a hardened steel ball with a diameter of 1.58mm and a load of 100kg is adopted to obtain the hardness, which is used for materials with lower hardness (such as annealed steel, cast iron, etc.); (3) HRC: the hardness obtained by 150kg load and the drill cone presser is used for materials with high hardness (such as quenched steel, etc.); Brinell hardness: brinell hardness (HB) is generally used in softer materials, such as nonferrous metals, pre-heat treatment or annealed steel. Brinell hardness (HB) is measured by pressing a hardened steel ball or cemented carbide ball of a certain diameter into the surface of the measured metal under a certain test load, holding it for a specified time, then unloading and measuring the indentation diameter of the measured surface. The brinell hardness number is the quotient of the load divided by the surface area of the indentation ball. Generally, a hardened steel ball of a certain size is pressed into the material surface with a certain load and kept for a period of time. After unloading, the ratio of the load to the indentation area is brinell hardness value (HB), which is expressed as kilogram force /mm2 (N/mm2). The test load and the diameter of the test ball should be determined according to the actual properties of the material. Vickers hardness: vickers hardness test method was developed by Smith and seidland in England in 1925. The first durometer to be tested in this way was developed by vickers Armstrong of the United Kingdom. Compared with brinell and rockwell hardness tests, vickers hardness test measures a wide range of materials, from softer materials to superhard materials, almost all kinds of materials. Vickers hardness is basically measured on the same principle as brinell hardness, which is based on the load per unit area of indentation. The difference is that the head of vickers hardness test is a positive pyramid of diamond. During the test, under the action of a certain load, a square cone indentation is pressed out on the surface of the sample, and the diagonal length of the indentation is measured so as to calculate the surface area of the indentation. The value of the load divided by the surface area is the hardness value of the sample, expressed by the symbol HV. Richter hardness: Richter hardness is expressed by HL. Richter hardness test technology was invented by Dr. Dierma of Switzerland. It USES a certain mass of impact body with tungsten carbide ball head to impact the surface of the specimen under a certain force and then rebound. Due to different hardness of materials, the rebound speed after impact is also different. Permanent magnet material is installed on the impact device. When the impact body moves up and down, its peripheral coil will generate electromagnetic signal proportional to the speed, and then convert it into Richter hardness value through the electronic circuit. 5. Shore hardness: HS for short, refers to a standard of material hardness, first proposed by the British shore. The bounce occurs when the impact pin falls from a certain height to the surface of the tested material. A bump pin is a small cone with a tip, on which diamonds are often inserted. The test value is 1000x return speed of impact pin/initial speed of impact pin (i.e., the velocity ratio before and after the collision is multiplied by 1000); 6. Barcol hardness: cole hardness (hereinafter referred to as barcol hardness), the first put forward by the Barber - Colman company, is a kind of hardness that is widely used in modern international category, must be in the shape of a hard steel needle, under the standard spring test force, pressed into the surface of the specimen, with pressure needle depth to determine the material hardness, define each pressure into the 0.0076 mm is a barcol hardness unit. The HBa hardness unit is expressed as HBa. 7. Nutrilite hardness: nutrilite hardness is the hardness measured as an absolute value, which is mainly used in processing. In general, the hardness of diamond is 7000~8000 kg/m2. 8. Wechsler hardness: a hard steel presser of a certain shape is pressed into the sample surface under the action of the standard spring test force. The depth of presser is used to determine the hardness of the material. The wechsler hardness unit is called HW. 1. HRA:(rockwell A) used for measuring hardness test of hard steel, nitride, carburizing smelting, bearing steel, tool steel and other soft and hard materials; 2. HK:(Knoop) for measuring hardness of steel and non-iron materials with softer materials; 3. HRC:(Rockwell C) for measuring heat treated steel, nitride, carburizing smelting, bearing steel, tool steel, etc. 4. HRB (Rockwell B) is used to measure the hardness of steel and non-iron materials of softer materials; 5. HR30T:(Rockwell 30T) used to measure the hardness of steel and non-iron materials of softer materials; 6. HB5:(Brinell Brinell 5) used for measuring aluminum, soft aluminum alloy, cast iron, copper, brass, etc.; 7. HB30:(Brinell Brinell 30) used for heat treatment steel, annealing cryogenic treatment steel, drawing material steel, deep drawing steel strip material, etc. 8. HV:(Vickers) suitable for measuring various materials; 9. R: (Tensile module Tensile modulus N/was) used in cryogenic heat treatment of steel, annealing, rushed to pull material steel, steel deep drawing steel strip material, etc.; 10. HR15N:(Rockwell HR15N) for the measurement of heat treated hard steels, nitrides, carburizing smelting, bearing steels, tool steels, etc.